Mol Carcinog. 2014 Jun 29. Epub 2014 Jun 29. PMID: 24976450
Wogonin suppresses human alveolar adenocarcinoma cell A549 migration in inflammatory microenvironment by modulating the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Increasing evidence from various clinical and experimental studies has demonstrated that the inflammatory microenvironment facilitates tumor metastasis. Clinically, it will be a promising choice to suppress tumor metastasis by targeting inflammatory microenvironment. Our previous studies have demonstrated that wogonin (a bioflavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine of Huang-Qin) possesses the anti-metastatic and anti-inflammatory activity, but we have little idea about its efficacy on inflammatory-induced tumor metastasis and the mechanism underlying it. In this study, we focused on epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first step of tumor metastasis, to evaluate the effects of wogonin on tumor metastasis in inflammatory microenvironment. We found that wogonin inhibited THP-1 conditioned-medium- (CM-) and IL-6-induced EMT by inactivating STAT3 signal. And in wogonin-treated A549 cells which pretreated with THP-1 CM or IL-6, the expression level of E-cadherin, an EMT negative biomarker, increased while that of N-cadherin, Vimentin, and EMT-related transcription factors including Snail and Twist decreased. Moreover, wogonin inhibited IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3, prevented p-STAT3 dimer translocation into the nucleus, and suppressed the DNA-binding activity of p-STAT3. Interestingly, similar results were obtained in the tumor xenografts mice, including downregulation of p-STAT3, N-cadherin, and Vimentin while up-regulation of E-cadherin. Wogonin also inhibit the metastasis of A549 cells in vivo. Taken all data together, we concluded that wogonin suppresses tumor cells migration in inflammatory microenvironment by inactivating STAT3 signal.
Mol Carcinog. 2014 Feb ;53 Suppl 1:E107-18. Epub 2013 Jun 13. PMID: 23761018
Wogonin reverses hypoxia resistance of human colon cancer HCT116 cells via downregulation of HIF-1α and glycolysis, by inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Hypoxia induced drug resistance is a major obstacle in the development of effective cancer therapy. In the present study, the reversal abilities of wogonin on the hypoxia resistance and the underlying mechanisms were discovered. MTT assay revealed that hypoxia increased maximal 1.71-, 2.08-, and 2.15-fold of IC50 toward paclitaxel, ADM, and DDP in human colon cancer cell lines HCT116, respectively. Furthermore, wogonin showed strong reversal potency in HCT116 cells in hypoxia and the RF reached 2.05. hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) can activate the expression of target genes involved in glycolysis. Wogonin decreased the expression of glycolysis-related proteins (HKII, PDHK1, LDHA), glucose uptake, and lactate generation in a dose-dependent manner. Further, Western blot experiments exhibited that wogonin could downregulate HIF-1α expression and glycolysis through inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which might be the mechanism of reversal resistance of wogonin. Also, wogonin could inhibit the growth of transplantable tumors and the expression of HIF-1α, glycolysis-related proteins and PI3K/Akt in vivo.In summary, wogonin could be a good candidate for the development of new multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent and its reversal mechanism probably is due to the suppression of HIF-1α expression via inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.